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developers, but I believe it can be used with other frameworks as well. It’s just a handbook for writing scalable and maintainable single-page-applications. It’s important to note, that this is not the only way, but it’s a way that works for me in quite a few situations.

A lot of developers are having trouble writing large-scale, maintainable single-page-applications. This results in early technical debt, a lot of frustration when fixing bugs, an eternal struggle when writing unit tests and creating reusable chunks of code…

One of the biggest challenges might be: extending existing logic and writing new features based on a tricky foundation.

Single-page-applications are rather new, and especially older frameworks gave you 100 different ways to design an application. There wasn’t any structure, encapsulation and everything was tightly coupled to each other.

Most of the time in the beginning of a project the development process went blazingly fast. But after a few developers, features, refactors, the code started to become less maintainable. It started to look like spaghetti. Frameworks have matured a lot, but it’s also important that the architecture of the software you write matures along with the process.

To explain the architecture where this article is all about, here’s a reminder of how a web-application in 2016 might look like. These are concepts that your applications should rely on these days. It doesn’t matter whether using DESIGN crop tshirt with flower embellishment White Asos Outlet Cheap With Paypal For Sale 100% Authentic For Sale Sale Enjoy Professional Cheap Price Rd4kFGuo0
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or something else. These principles exist to make sure that your web architecture becomes maintainable.

SPA-technologies like React and Angular2 make us use components. A component is a piece of HTML and JavaScript combined. We don’t want to use standalone views or standalone controllers anymore. They can grow exponentially and are related to each other in a way that is hard to maintain.

So basically the philosophy here is: everything should be a component , even your pages and your application. An application could look like this:

everything should be a component

Some very simple but very important tips in designing components:

If you are new to designing components, this article might be of help: Classic Logo Sweatshirt In White CZ0300 White Reebok Cheapest Online Explore Cheap Price Largest Supplier Cheap Price Free Shipping Excellent Low Shipping Fee Cheap Online on2Gia8aGr

Note: Smart components are also called structural components, containers or stateful components

Before, we used to update application state in a rather inefficient manner:

Did you ever tried to make sibling components communicate with each other? Sometimes it seems pragmatic to do so, but please don’t.

This is bad design! It’s almost impossible to see in which direction the data flows. I’s also very hard to maintain this code, fix bugs in it or develop features. What we do want, is a unidirectional dataflow like or Redux .

The initializer for City is called from within the initializer for Country . However, the initializer for Country cannot pass self to the City initializer until a new Country instance is fully initialized, as described in Eastbay Visit New Sale Online Pleated Crochet Cold Shoulder Top Lilac chalk New Look Cheap Sale 2018 Newest New Styles Sale Online 7Mxoero
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To cope with this requirement, you declare the capitalCity property of Country as an implicitly unwrapped optional property, indicated by the exclamation mark at the end of its type annotation ( City! ). This means that the capitalCity property has a default value of nil , like any other optional, but can be accessed without the need to unwrap its value as described in Womens Eyelet Tie Jumper New Look Visit New Cheap Online Sale Comfortable Order Buy Cheap Fashion Style TgpDsf
.

Because capitalCity has a default nil value, a new Country instance is considered fully initialized as soon as the Country instance sets its name property within its initializer. This means that the Country initializer can start to reference and pass around the implicit self property as soon as the name property is set. The Country initializer can therefore pass self as one of the parameters for the City initializer when the Country initializer is setting its own capitalCity property.

All of this means that you can create the Country and City instances in a single statement, without creating a strong reference cycle, and the capitalCity property can be accessed directly, without needing to use an exclamation mark to unwrap its optional value:

In the example above, the use of an implicitly unwrapped optional means that all of the two-phase class initializer requirements are satisfied. The capitalCity property can be used and accessed like a nonoptional value once initialization is complete, while still avoiding a strong reference cycle.

You saw above how a strong reference cycle can be created when two class instance properties hold a strong reference to each other. You also saw how to use weak and unowned references to break these strong reference cycles.

A strong reference cycle can also occur if you assign a closure to a property of a class instance, and the body of that closure captures the instance. This capture might occur because the closure’s body accesses a property of the instance, such as self.someProperty , or because the closure calls a method on the instance, such as self.someMethod() . In either case, these accesses cause the closure to “capture” self , creating a strong reference cycle.

Detect start-class.

70.2

The findmainclass task is used internally by exejar to locate a class declaring a main . If necessary, you can also use this task directly in your build. The following attributes are supported:

70.2.1Examples

This section contains three examples of using findmainclass .

Find and log.

Find and set.

Override and set.

71.Supporting Other Build Systems

If you want to use a build tool other than Maven, Gradle, or Ant, you likely need to develop your own plugin. Executable jars need to follow a specific format and certain entries need to be written in an uncompressed form (see the “ executable jar format ” section in the appendix for details).

The Spring Boot Maven and Gradle plugins both make use of spring-boot-loader-tools to actually generate jars. If you need to, you may use this library directly.

71.1Repackaging Archives

To repackage an existing archive so that it becomes a self-contained executable archive, use org.springframework.boot.loader.tools.Repackager . The Repackager class takes a single constructor argument that refers to an existing jar or war archive. Use one of the two available repackage() methods to either replace the original file or write to a new destination. Various settings can also be configured on the repackager before it is run.

71.2Nested Libraries

When repackaging an archive, you can include references to dependency files by using the org.springframework.boot.loader.tools.Libraries interface. We do not provide any concrete implementations of Libraries here as they are usually build-system-specific.

If your archive already includes libraries, you can use Libraries.NONE .

71.3Finding a Main Class

If you do not use Repackager.setMainClass() to specify a main class, the repackager uses to read class files and tries to find a suitable class with a public static void main(String[] args) method. An exception is thrown if more than one candidate is found.

71.4Example Repackage Implementation

The following example shows a typical repackage implementation:

72.What to Read Next

If you are interested in how the build tool plugins work, you can look at the spring-boot-tools module on GitHub. More technical details of the executable jar format are covered in Big Discount Womens Anacapri Sleeveless CoverUp Dress Milly Explore Sale Online VAKrq43Xa
.

If you have specific build-related questions, you can check out the “ zip front cardigan Black Zanone Clearance Nicekicks xvgYk7C5pK
” guides.

This section provides answers to some common ‘how do I do that…​’ questions that often arise when using Spring Boot. Its coverage is not exhaustive, but it does cover quite a lot.

If you have a specific problem that we do not cover here, you might want to check out lion print hooded cardigan Black Versus Clearance Latest Collections 4RXkrIg5Sz
to see if someone has already provided an answer. This is also a great place to ask new questions (please use the tag).

We are also more than happy to extend this section. If you want to add a ‘how-to’, send us a pull request .

73.Spring Boot Application

This section includes topics relating directly to Spring Boot applications.

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